A clinical trial including 3 year old flacid, blind, and epileptic cerebral palsy boy on inefficient triple drug therapy.

One year after the transplantation (at age 4):
• He has improvement in muscular tonicity
• He can see and confirmed by retinigram
• He has no more epilepsy confirmed by EEG

A right middle cerebral artery ischemia, treated with intrathecal adult stem cells (Patent under name The Regentime Brain)

Stem cells for neurological diseases

The neurological disease model in some researches is absent, and that’s why finding of the ultimate study is not straight forward like in ischemic stroke or multiple sclerosis for example.

Ali, Stott, and Barker, wrote in their article dated to 2014: progress in Parkinson's disease research has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate model which exhibits the core pathology seen in the human brain. They continued describing recent advances in deriving cells with neuronal phenotypes from patients with neurodegenerative disorders, through cellular reprogramming offering the unique tool for this disease modeling. Authors of this article said that the phonotypical model may not only help with in vivo research, but also as a platform for drug screening: This technology may also help in establishing platforms for drug screening and open up exciting new prospects for cell grafting.

Stem cell therapy and spinal cord injury

In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, an old paper referred to the year 2000 where the authors showed that oligodendrocyte cultures can be consistently produced from retinoic acid-induced stem cell cells and that these oligodendrocytes can myelinate axons in vitro.

Later on many hundreds of clinical trials where ran and in their review in 2009 of 140 PubMed articles, Rishi et al. concluded that neuroprotective and axon regeneration-promoting effects have been credited to transplanted stem cells in spinal cord injury. But they also said that there are still issues related to stem cell transplantation that need to be resolved, including ethical concerns.

In a 2010 work, Sahni et al. defined the motivations behinds the therapeutic use of stem cells for spinal cord injury:

1. Replacement of damaged neurons and glial cells
2. Secretion of trophic factors
3. Regulation of gliosis and scar formation
4. Prevention of cyst formation
5. Enhancement of axon elongation.

In the Developmental Dynamics 2017, Zhu and his colleagues discussed the recent advances in neural stem cells transplantation therapy for spinal cord injury.

When they came to a huge review in the 2017 version of the Oxford academic book Neurosurgery, authors of the chapter Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury-Repair and Regenerationmentioned that cell therapies as important measures which should be taken when available.

Beside the popular mesenchymal cells they deliberated there texts to the Neural stem cells, which are also called precursor stem cells, the Schwan cells, the Olfactory ensheathing cells and at the end the biomaterials which are a combination of scaffolds and cells.

In the famous journal Stem Cells International, Jing Qu and Huanxiang Zhang (2017) stated that after spinal cord injury, a combination of mesenchymal stem cells with nerve tissue-engineered scaffolds can direct the cell growth, spreading, migration, and differentiation, producing various growth factors, neuroprotective cytokines and chemokines, reducing the inflammatory reaction by suppressing lymphocyte effects, modulating glial scar formation, down-regulating Caspase-3 mediated apoptosis.

Regeneration of the liver

Among all organs, the liver is capable of a notable regenerative ability. Tuo et al. studied the use of stem cells for liver fibrosis because as they mentioned, the application of liver transplantation is limited by a shortage of liver donors, a high incidence rate of surgical complications, graft-versus-host disease, and high medical costs.

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation may become a promising method for the treatment of liver diseases. Due to their functions including immune regulation and secretion of trophic factors, UC-MSCs can inhibit immune response, promote hepatocyte regeneration, alleviate the progression of liver fibrosis, and improve liver function.

A group of researchers published under the correspondence of Zhonghua et al in February 2017 a rapid comparison between umbilical cord blood and bone marrow derived stem cells, exposing the non-invasiveness in collection of umbilical stem cells as an attractive plus.

This came just before my own publication in September 2017 in Stem Cell Investigation under titled: “A case report of congenital glycogen storage liver cirrhosis treated with bone marrow derived stem cells” about a successful 5 year follow up post stem cell transplantation of proliferated and mobilized autologous adult bone marrow derived progenitor stem cells. Fanti et al. focused in their latest work in 2017 in studying the human amnion and its stem cells for liver regeneration.


Regeneration of the skin

Regarding the huge physical and economic problem of a skin defect sufferer and the challenge facing treating physicians, I will optimistically refer to a bioengineered skin with Zeinali et al, where a study on experimental skin grafting, of chitosan-modified poly3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate scaffold loaded with umbilical cord blood derived stem cells showed an excellent wound repair with good structural resilience and mechanical compliance with movement of the skin graft, all with features of skin regeneration promotion.

For chronic difficult wounds, the novel method of using bone marrow derived stem cells and its significant reduction in the wound surface area was studied and described by Gupta Gopal et al. and published in April 2017.

Regeneration of the intestine

It was shown in an experiment by Gong in 2016 that the resident stem cells in the base of the intestinal crypts play a significant role in the epithelium regeneration following radiation injury. Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to improve this repair in a mouse model. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells improved the survival of the mice, ameliorated intestinal injury, and increased the number of regenerating crypts.

There was a significant increase of intestinal stem cells as well and their line cells; the transient amplifying cells, the enterocytes and the lysozyme+ Paneth cells. Apoptosis was also reduced at 6 h post-radiation. These results show that mesenchymal stem cells support the growth of endogenous intestinal stem cells, and it was discovered that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was behind the biomolecular processes.

Regeneration of the kidney

A stem cell therapy for the glomerular disease attempt is focused to promote the limited capability of repair kidney. It overcomes the progressive pathological process that is uncontrolled with conventional treatment modalities.

In March 2017, Thakkar et al. wrote that current advances have demonstrated promising structural and functional results in using cell therapies. Their review enlightens on stem cell therapy approaches for the treatment of glomerular disease, including the various cell sources used and recent advances in preclinical and clinical studies.

Regeneration of the cartilage

With a reviewing introduction, Kazemnejad et al. introduce the cartilage in the Iranian journal Avicenna as the avascular, aneural, alymphatic connective tissue with low chondrocytic mitotic.

Physiological restoration of full thickness injury leads to the formation of low functioning fibro-cartilaginous mechanically incompetent new tissue, compared to the original hyaline rich original one. At the end of the nature’s renovation process, more defects can result.

Reviewing all the bioengineering works at Medline/Pubmed and Elsevier databases, Kazemnejad, Khanmohammadi, Baheiraei and Arastehwrote in 2017 that regenerative medicine offers unique topographical features via the nanofibrous structures, allowing them to mimic the extracellular cartilage innate matrix, inducing cartilage regeneration and reconstruction.


A mesenchymal stem cells showing:Chondrogenicity- the blue image Osteogenicity- the red image Adipogenicity- the mixt gray image

Regeneration of the cornea

Authors from the journal Stem Cells said in 2014 that producing epidermal keratinocytes by cultivation from a skin biopsy celebrated its 30 years of age. Concerning the ophthalmology field, recent breakthroughs touched the cornea, and this was through the therapeutic potentials of both multipotent and pluripotent stem cells.

Most of available treatments for corneal opacification and visual loss are palliative and focused on palliative treatment to relief of the devastating clinical picture. This entity is mainly caused by ocular burns. Similar cases mentioned in Stem Cells (2014), were successfully treated with cell-based therapy of limbal stem cell deficiency, and recent findings can provide standardization of cure for such disabling disease.

Regeneration of the heart

Since the first years of the 21st century, Afzal in 2015 stated that several forms of cell therapy have been studied in clinical trials. The types of used stem cells were the skeletal myoblasts, the bone marrow mononuclear cells, the mesenchymal stem cells, and the cardiac precursor cells. Along with his colleagues, they concluded that cell therapy, in its various forms, has generally been efficacious, providing modest structural and functional improvements in cardiac patients with acute infarction as well as in those with chronic ischemic heart.

In another latest study, by Anweshan et al (April 2016), it is shown that meta-analysis of preclinical data reveals efficacy of cardiac stem cells (precursor cardiac) for heart repair.

In a unique clinical study on animal model, a group of researchers showed a continuous exchange and supply of stem cells between the bone marrow and the cardiac stem cell niche, the focus of cardiac precursor cells inside the heart. The study was named by Na Liu et al. in 2016: Bone Marrow Is a Reservoir for Cardiac Resident Stem Cells.

Ming Hao, Richard Wang, and Wen Wang summarized in The Cell Therapies inCardiomyopathy: Current Status of Clinical Trials: "considerable advances in our currentunderstanding have shown that stem cell therapy is safe, is moderately effective, and is mediated by indirect paracrine mechanisms."

Why Regenerative Medicine?
  • Faster recovery time.
  • Improve joint, ligaments, and tendon function.
  • No incisions or trauma.
  • Very little pain.
  • No general anesthesia.
  • Renewal and repair within the joint.
  • Very low side effect.

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